A map is a two dimensional representation of earth surface which uses graphics to convey geographical information. It describes the geographical location of features and the relationship between them. Maps are fundamental to society.

Improvements in the fields of Geodesy, Surveying and Cartography helped in bringing the maps to their present form. The digital technology has altered the way of creating, presenting and distributing the geographic information. The conventional cartography is now getting replaced by computer aided designs and graphics, and the analog maps (paper maps) by digital maps. The growing field of technology promises to bring more advances to Cartography to render maps and allied services that serve the society in a better manner.

Source: NPTEL

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